mineral is a naturally occuring, homogeneous, solid with a crystalline atomic structure. Crystallinity implies
that a mineral has a definite and limited range of composition, and that the composition is expressible as a chemical
formula. Some definitions of minerals give them as inorganic materials, however both diamonds and graphite are considered
minerals, and both are primarily comprised of carbon, which would make them organic. So this leads me, as an
engineer, to believe that mineralogists do not have a good, precise definition of a mineral, but rather a loose
definition. The definition above, is the most inclusive and would include all substances currently described as minerals.
The key items that make something a mineral are occurring naturally, and the definite crystal structure, that is
expressible as a chemical formula. Rocks that do not meet this criteria are referred to as amorphis - not having a
definite structure or expressible as a chemical formula. Some elements that occur naturally and are minerals are arsenic,
bismuth, platinum, gold, silver, copper, and sulphur.
THE DEFINITION OF ORGANIC: Organic chemistry is the study of those substances containing carbon in combination with
hydrogen (H), and a few other non metals, namely oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and the halogens (F2, Cl2,
Br2, and I2).
The mineral, Pyrolusite, is the most important ore mineral of MANGANESE, forms dark gray to black coatings, crusts,
columnar or granular masses, and rare crystals (polianite) that have one perfect cleavage. Pyrolusite results from
alteration of MANGANITE and other manganese minerals.
About 95% of the world's annual production of manganese is used by the iron and steel industry to purify iron and to make
alloys. Manganese is added to iron because it reduces iron oxide to form manganese oxide, which dissolves well in molten
slag and is easily separated from the iron. In alloys, manganese increases the durability and corrosion resistance of
iron and steel and makes steel more malleable when forged. This nonmagnetic, tough, durable, and shockproof alloy is
used in grinding machinery, wrecking equipment, caterpillar trucks, and mechanical pounding equipment used in heavy-duty
construction. The iron manganese alloys, which are used for making other alloys, are ferromanganese (about 80% Mn) and
spiegeleisen (15-30% Mn); they contain some carbon and silicon. Other important manganese alloys that do not contain iron
include the Heusler alloys (18-25% manganese plus copper and aluminum or zinc), which are the strongest nonferrous metals;
manganese copper (approximately 75% copper and 25% manganese), which has great electrical resistance; and manganin
(about 83% copper, 14% manganese, and 3% nickel), which has a very slight heat-expansion coefficient and an electrical
resistance nearly independent of temperature. Alloys very rich in manganese and containing nickel and copper have a high
heat-expansion coefficient, however, and are used in the expanding part of bimetal thermostats. Manganese chloride and
manganese sulfate, are added to commercial fertilizers. The sulfate is sometimes used for making red enamel, for
impregnating wood, and for staining zinc black. Manganese carbonate yields the pigment manganese white. A number of
manganese salts are used in the paint industry to accelerate the hardening of drying oils. When a manganese compound
is fused with potassium nitrate, the intensely green potassium manganate is produced. By adding sulfuric acid, the
intensely purple potassium permanganate is obtained. Potassium permanganate is used for bleaching and removing color
from fabrics that are able to tolerate strong oxidation. In concentrated form such solutions are also used to clear
clogged drain pipes. The most important manganese compound, pyrolusite or manganese dioxide, is also an oxidizing agent.
Pyrolusite is used extensively in the electrodes of dry batteries, where it absorbs liberated hydrogen gas and then
chemically bonds it. It is also used as an oxygen source in fireworks and as a chemical catalyst. All other manganese
compounds are made from pyrolusite.